This article is a comprehensive guide on outlier detection and treatment. The author explains that outliers are data points that significantly differ from other data points in a dataset, and they can skew the results of statistical analysis, affect the measures of central tendency and variability, the accuracy of statistical models, and the validity of statistical tests. However, removing outliers can also have its drawbacks, such as loss of important information.

The article presents several methods of dealing with outliers, including removal, imputation, winsorization, transformation, binning, and model-based methods. The choice of method depends on the nature of the data and the research question being investigated.

Overall, the article provides a comprehensive overview of outlier detection and treatment, and it can be useful for anyone who works with data analysis.

**(1) OUTLIERS**

Outliers are data points that significantly differ from the other data points in a dataset. They can be identified as extreme values that lie far from the mean or median of the dataset. Outliers can be caused by various factors, such as measurement errors, incorrect data entry, or natural variability in the data.

Outliers can have a significant impact on the statistical analysis of a dataset. They can skew the results of statistical tests and lead to incorrect conclusions. Therefore, it is often necessary to remove outliers from a dataset before performing statistical analysis. Let’s explore the reasons in detail.

**(2) WHY REMOVE THEM?**

There are several reasons why outliers should be removed:

**Outliers can distort the data distribution**: Outliers can make it difficult to determine the true distribution of the data. For example, if a dataset has a normal distribution, the presence of outliers can make the distribution appear skewed.**Outliers can affect the measures of central tendency**: Measures of central tendency such as mean and median can be significantly affected by outliers.*The mean is particularly sensitive to outliers,*and a single extreme value can significantly skew the mean.**Outliers can affect the**…